late 12th early 13th century ecclesiastical vestments

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Eve
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late 12th early 13th century ecclesiastical vestments

Postby Eve » Mon Oct 27, 2014 9:21 am

Sorry for the unwieldy title but I am after very specific information.
I am after references to first hand sources/extant examples of the type of vestments that the Archbishop of Canterbury would have worn late 12th early 13th century, specifically Stephen Langton. I believe the mitre had been adopted around 1100 and that it was of a fairly low concave form and I know about the sketches by Matthew Paris.
Thanks in advance
Steve



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Brother Ranulf
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Re: late 12th early 13th century ecclesiastical vestments

Postby Brother Ranulf » Mon Oct 27, 2014 3:13 pm

Steve,

Apart from the mitre, the vestments of an archbishop changed only slightly throughout the medieval era and beyond. The mitre is a guide to dating, since it evolved at a specific pace and changed form in a recorded way.

There are many surviving vestments from the second half of the 12th century, notably a whole ensemble of clothing worn by Thomas Becket while in exile in France (preserved at Sens Cathedral) - see some photographs here: http://www.newliturgicalmovement.org/20 ... E5LI1eVHlw

Just like a priest, an archbishop was subject to Church rules on liturgical colours (perhaps more rigorously so, since parish priests tended to be relatively poor and incapable of stocking the full range of prescribed colours). These colours were first formalised by Pope Innocent III before 1198 but they had already been in common use for some time.

Also like a priest, an archbishop could wear either a chasuble or a cope as his outermost vestment, depending on the type of service he was attending, or when in procession or on various other occasions. The stained glass window showing Becket at Canterbury Cathedral was constructed towards the end of the century and it shows a "typical" archbishop at the date - the mitre and green chasuble are certainly correct: http://www.soniahalliday.com/category-v ... 1-1-20.jpg

The mitre of the late 12th century was pointed at front and rear and very heavily embroidered (as were all the vestments of an archbishop). Folded flat it had a height to width ratio of about 10:13 and it always had two long, flaring ribbons (infulae) hanging from the rear.
See: http://28.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lwmfr ... o1_500.jpg

More on liturgical colours, which would apply to copes and chasubles:

"LITURGICAL COLOURS, LATE 12TH CENTURY

Innocent III, before he became Pope in 1198,
set down a sequence of liturgical colours:

In this white is prescribed for feasts of Virgins, Confessors,
and Angels ; on Christmas Day, the Nativity of
St. John Baptist, the Epiphany, Candlemas,
Maundy Thursday, Easter Day, Ascension Day,
and the dedication of a church ; the Conversion
of St. Paul, and St. Peter's Chair.

Red is to be used on feasts of Apostles, Martyrs, Virgin Martyrs,
of the Holy Rood, Whit-Sunday, the Beheading of
St. John Baptist. But, he says, perhaps it is
better to use white on feasts of the Holy Rood.

Some use red on All Saints' Day, but the Court
of Rome uses white.

Black is used during Advent,and from Septuagesima to Easter Even ; and for
the departed. Some say also on Childermas, and
others red ; but at the present time we use violet,
as on Mid-Lent Sunday.

Green is used on ferial and common days. Some, however, refer saffron
(which is to be reckoned as green) to Confessors."

I hope this helps


Brother Ranulf

"Patres nostri et nos hanc insulam in brevi edomuimus in brevi nostris subdidimus legibus, nostris obsequiis mancipavimus" - Walter Espec 1138

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Brother Ranulf
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Re: late 12th early 13th century ecclesiastical vestments

Postby Brother Ranulf » Mon Oct 27, 2014 3:44 pm

Just to illustrate the point about the mitre, this alabaster carving in the V&A of "the consecration of Thomas Becket" was made in the 15th century - and it is horribly wrong. The mitres have outwardly sloping sides, unlike the vertical sides of the 12th/13th centuries:
http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O6983 ... l-unknown/

In the period after Becket's murder there was a definite fashion for mitres depicting that crime (it was a seriously important event). Here are two examples of early 13th century English mitres, one in Germany and one in France:
http://www.medievalart.org.uk/PhD/Plate ... Mitres.jpg


Brother Ranulf



"Patres nostri et nos hanc insulam in brevi edomuimus in brevi nostris subdidimus legibus, nostris obsequiis mancipavimus" - Walter Espec 1138

Eve
Posts: 291
Joined: Sat Aug 20, 2005 9:14 pm

Re: late 12th early 13th century ecclesiastical vestments

Postby Eve » Mon Oct 27, 2014 4:30 pm

Thank you Dave I knew I could count on you to help. Hope you are well. We're going to be in Kent on Thursday so perhaps I need to visit Canterbury Cathedral.




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